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Table 2 Pharmacological treatment of each spinal-generated movement disorder

From: Spinal-generated movement disorders: a clinical review

SGMDs CLZ VPA LVT CBZ GBP ImRxa Others
Spinal segmental myoclonus (SSM) + + +     
Propriospinal myoclonus (PSM) + +      
Orthostatic tremor (OT) +     +   +b
Paroxysmal tonic spasms in multiple sclerosis (MS)     +    +c
Stiff person syndrome (SPS) and its variants +/−d      + +e
Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (a variant of SPS) +/−d      + +e
Painful legs-moving toes syndrome (PLMT) +f    +f +   +g
  1. Pharmacologic therapies in SGMDs. The effective or possibly effective therapies are indicated by “+”. Drugs utilized in SGMDs are mostly antiepileptics (including benzodiazepines, especially clonazepam, valproate, levetiracetam, carbamazepine, and gabapentin), and immunotherapiesa (including steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and/or plasma exchange, as well as immunosuppressants such as azathioprine, cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate mofetil)
  2. Abbreviations: SGMDs spinal-generated movement disorders, CLZ clonazepam, VPA valproate, LVT levetiracetam, CBZ carbamazepine, GBP gabapentin, ImRx immunotherapies
  3. bDopaminergic therapies including dopamine agonists and levodopa in case with co-existing parkinsonism
  4. cAcetazolamide
  5. dClonazepam may be used, but anecdotally is less effective than diazepam
  6. eBenzodiazepines, especially diazepam
  7. fIn our experience, these medications are used less often than gabapentin
  8. gPregabalin is also used. Other medications reported in small number of patients include baclofen, carbamazepine, and tricyclic antidepressants