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Table 1 The list of “red flags” that should alert the physician about PD patient’s fitness to drive

From: Physicians’ role in the determination of fitness to drive in patients with Parkinson’s disease: systematic review of the assessment tools and a call for national guidelines

Methods Red flags
1. Clinical history • History of car accident (during the past 5 years)
• Presence of sleep attacks while driving
• High daily levodopa equivalent dosage ≥ 585 mg
• Long disease duration ≥ 8 years
2. Questionnaire • High Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS score ≥ 10)
3. Motor assessment • High H&Y score ≥ 2.5 points
• High UPDRS motor score > 27 points
• High rapid pace walk score ≥ 6.22 points
• High Webster’s scale
4. Cognitive assessment • Low MMSE score < 27 points or low MOCA score
• Poor performance on Trail A&B making test
• Poor performance on complex figure test
• Poor performance on block design test
• Poor performance on dot cancellation test
5. Visual assessment • High UFOV risk index ≥ 3
• Poor performance on Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity
• Poor visual acuity