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Table 1 Stimulation and Stereotactic Surgical Causes of PBA

From: Pseudobulbar laughter as a levodopa off phenomenon exacerbated by subthalamic deep brain stimulation

Study n Age (years) Anatomical location Stimulation parameters On/OFF levodopa Pseudobulbar affect
Okun et al. [6] 1 46 Left subthalamic nucleus Monopolar stimulation: OFF Crying
1.5 V, 90 μs, 130Hz
Krack et al. [7] 2 47 Bilateral Subthalamic nucleus Monopolar Stimulation: NA Mirthful Laughter
3.6 V/90 μs/160Hz
54 Right Subthalamic nucleus Monopolar Stimulation: NA Mirthful Laughter
5.0–5.5 V/60 μs/130Hz
Low et al. [8] 1 48 Bilateral subthalamic nucleus Monopolar stimulation: OFF Crying
0.5 V/60 μs/130Hz
Bipolar stimulation:
>1.0 V/60 μs/130Hz
Okun et al. [11] 1 46 Right ventral intermedius nucleus (VIM) Thalamotomy NA Laughter
  1. NA, not available