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Table 2 Comparison of results between new patients and combined data with the previous publication

From: The phenomenology and natural history of idiopathic lower cranial dystonia

  New patients Combined data
Number of the patients 25 41
Sex Female 18/25 (72%) Female 24/41 (58.5%)
  Male 7/25 (28%) Male 17/41 (41.5%)
Female/male (F/M ratio) 2.6:1 1.4:1
Average age at onset (years) 56 53.3
 In female subgroup 59.5 48.6
 In male subgroup 48.6 47.2
Areas affected   
 Jaw only (including mixed primary movements of jaw) 15 (60%) 20 (48.8%)
 Lip or perioral only 0 (0%) 2 (4.9%)
 Tongue only 2 (8%) 5 (12.2%)
 Pharynx/larynx 1 (4%) 2 (4.9%)
 Mixed 7 (28%) 11 (26.8%)
  Jaw and tongue 4 (16%) 6 (14.6%)
Primary movement   
 Pure jaw deviation 6 (24%) 7 (17%)
  to the left 4 (16%) 5 (12.2%)
 Pure jaw opening 4 (16%) 4 (9.8%)
 Mixed 12 (48%) 17 (41.5%)
Task specificity   
 Speech 18 (72%) 27 (65.9%)
 Eating/chewing 15 (60%) 18 (43.9%)
 At rest 9 (36%) 11 (26.8%)
 Musical instrument 0 (0%) 4 (9.8%)
Geste antagoniste 18 (72%) 34 (82.9%)
 Object between teeth 17 (68%) 31 (75.6%)
  with side specificity 6 (24%) 8 (19.5%)
 Holding body part lightly 10 (40%) 15 (36.6%)
  with side specificity 4 (16%) 8 (19.5%)
Treatment   
THP 21 (84%) 29 (70.7%)
  good response 3 (12%) 5 (12.2%)
CLZ 15 (60%) 22 (53.7%)
  good response 2 (8%) - all mild 4 (9.8%)
Baclofen 5 (20%) 7 (17%)
  good response 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
BoNT 10 (40%) 18 (43.9%)
  good response 3 (12%) - all mild 5 (12.2%)
Dental device 4 (16%) 11 (26.8%)
  good response 0 (0%) 2 (4.9%)
  1. Legend: Data on our 25 patients and combined 41 is shown in the middle and right columns, respectively. Number of patients, sex, average age at onset, areas affected, primary movement, task specificity, geste antagoniste, and treatment employed are listed in the left column. With regards to areas affected, note that “jaw only” group also includes patients with mixed primary movement of the jaw such as mixed jaw opening and protrusion. With regards to geste antagoniste, data on side specificity, either left or right, is shown. Numbers of the patients on each treatment modality and the ones with a good response are shown. Data on “no-response” and “unknown” group is not shown here. All numerical data (except average age at onset) represent numbers of the patient with percentage (in the brackets) of total number of the patients in each group, 25 and 41, respectively, are shown.
  2. THP, trihexyphenidyl; CLZ, clonazepam; BoNT, botulinum toxin injections.